An international study of the factors associated with the acceptability of advanced rider assistive systems for powered two-wheelers
Although the use of advanced driver assistive systems in passenger vehicles is becoming increasingly widespread, there has been limited development of equivalent systems in powered two-wheelers (PTWs). One reason for this is that the development and deployment of advanced rider assistive systems has been met with resistance from many PTW rider groups, despite research suggesting that assistive systems could potentially reduce the number and severity of PTW crashes. A large-scale survey on PTW riders’ acceptance of assistive systems was conducted across Europe and Australia as part of the European Commission Two-wheeler Behaviour and Safety (2-Be-Safe) project. The sample included 6297 respondents (257 Australians), who were typically frequent riders and rode primarily for leisure purposes. Several individual traits predicted overall levels of acceptability of assistive systems in general, including self-reported risky riding practices and attitudes towards rule-breaking and speeding. Overall levels of acceptability were relatively low; however, acceptability levels varied considerably between specific systems. Acceptability was highest for systems that are well known and considered reliable (e.g., night vision, ABS) and lowest for systems that interfere with the task of riding (e.g., ISA, adaptive cruise control). The results indicate that riders remain resistant to the use of assistive systems and highlight several barriers to the uptake of assistive systems by PTW riders, but also suggest possible strategies for overcoming these barriers and ultimately improving riders’ acceptance of PTW assistive systems.