Estimation of impact severity in pedestrian accidents using accident investigation, computer simulation and physical reconstruction
This paper presents current research where the investigation of actual pedestrian accidents is being used to estimate the levels of impact that are causing injury in those accidents. This is being done by reconstructing the impact that caused the injury. The reconstruction of each case begins by attendance at the scene of a pedestrian accident, which may be of any severity. Vehicle and scene investigations are used to determine the speed of the vehicle on impact, and to determine the contact points between it and the pedestrian. Interviews, hospital records, Coroner?s files and Trauma Registry records are used to identify injuries suffered by the pedestrian. Computer simulation is used to reconstruct the sequence of impacts between the vehicle and the pedestrian, and the velocity of the parts of the pedestrian?s body which come into contact with the car are determined. The simulation data is then used in the laboratory, where sub-system dummies representing the leg, upper leg and head are used to recreate the impact on the same make and model of car that was involved in the actual accident. The results of the impact reconstructions will be related to the type and severity of injuries sustained in the actual accident.