BioRID, a Crash Test Dummy for Rear Impact: A Review of Development, Validation and Evaluation
Neck injuries in rear-end car collisions is a problem on the increase. It causes severe pain and suffering to the subjected individuals and huge societal costs. The lack of a biofidelic crash dummy for rear-end impact testing has made it difficult to assess the function of the protective systems in cars, mainly the seats and head restraints. A Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy (BioRID) was developed in several steps and validated against volunteer and cadaver test results and compared to the Hybrid III. The new dummy was partly based on the Hybrid III dummy. It had a new articulated spine with curvature and range of motion resembling that of a human being. A mathematical model (Madymo) of the head and neck was also developed and used during the development of the dummy. The BioRID was found to have more humanlike kinematics than the Hybrid III. This was found for the angular, vertical and horizontal displacement of the upper torso. It was also found for the head relative to upper torso horizontal and angular displacement. For future rear impact testing, the BioRID is an important step towards a more biofidelic dummy.